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Movimientos Sociales del Sur como acción política

Giuliana Romera Minati, vecina de Agrelo y estudiante de la Lic. en Ciencia Política y Administración Pública
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, participó del «III Congreso Internacional: Nuevos Horizontes de Iberoamérica”  el cual abordó las problemática de la violencia, la ficción, las revistas culturales y la glotopolítica iberoamericanas, entre otros temas.

Giuliana Romera Minati, vecina de Agrelo y estudiante de la Lic. en Ciencia Política y Administración Pública
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, comparte en entrevista con Diario Luján su investigación sobre los  Movimientos sociales del Sur: la movilización de recursos y la construcción de identidad como incentivos de la acción colectiva, que expuso el día viernes en dicho Congreso.

De izq a derecha: Aimé Aminahuel, Luis Blacha, Celia Basconzuelo, Gilda Orellana, Giuliana Romera Minati y Óscar Soto.
De izq a derecha: Aimé Aminahuel, Luis Blacha, Celia Basconzuelo, Gilda Orellana, Giuliana Romera Minati y Óscar Soto.

En la entrevista del 8 de noviembre Romera Minati explicó en qué consisten los Movimientos Sociales del Sur.

Hoy dialogamos sobre ejemplos vigentes de Movimientos Sociales del Sur en la historia argentina reciente.


¿Qué ejemplos son representativos en Argentina de Movimientos Sociales del Sur?

En Argentina, el trabajo de la Tupac Amaru es representativo de los Movimientos Sociales del Sur.

La Tupac Amaru nace en los ’90s, con Millagro Sala como Delegada de ATE, puesto al que luego renuncia. Este es un movimiento que es representativo de lo que mencionábamos en el trabajo de investigación, sobre la idea de que los Movimientos Sociales del Sur son productos híbridos que se mueven entre la construcción de una identidad anti sistema y la movilización de recursos dentro del mismo para poder transformarlo y permanecer en el tiempo.

Tupac Amaru, como Movimiento Social del Sur.
Tupac Amaru, como Movimiento Social del Sur.

Cuando surge la Tupac, lo hace con identidad crítica al sistema laboral de los ’90s, embanderando a Evita como la fuerza femenina, a Tupac Amaru por la fiereza de los pueblos originarios y al Che Guevara por la valentía de los pueblos latinoamericanos.

Milagro Sala logra conformar un movimiento que reivindica los pueblos originarios, pero, esto dicho en palabras de ella, cuando nace el movimiento social Tupac Amaru, nace con un único ideal que es la necesidad: No tenemos para comer, no tenemos donde vivir, necesitamos que la estructura social y política cambie, y si no va a cambiar sola, vamos nosotros a cambiarla a través del trabajo cooperativo y la ayuda mutua.

Este es un ejemplo de lo que propongo como Movimiento Social, la Tupac Amaru. En una provincia como Jujuy, donde la discriminación racial es muy alta, donde las diferencias sociales y de clases es muy alta, con brechas muy grandes, la Tupac Amaru logra traccionar recursos de la estructura para difundir su lucha y lograr pequeñas conquistas hasta el día de hoy, lo que implica una supervivencia y un sello identitario

Actualmente asistimos a un gran activismo de los movimientos sociales que buscan la defensa de un ambiente sano y seguro para nosotros y las generaciones próximas, tal es el caso de la Asamblea por la Soberanía Alimentaria. ¿Qué perspectiva pueden tener estos movimientos respecto de tu investigación sobre los Movimientos Sociales del Sur?

Los movimientos sociales que luchan por la Soberanía Alimentaria son muy interesantes, porque le dan voz y visibilidad a algo que muchos sabemos, pero que no encontraban esa brecha por donde canalizar y organizarse.

 

Reclamo social por la defensa de un ambiente sano y seguro
Reclamo social por la defensa de un ambiente sano y seguro

Justo en este momento donde se está debatiendo la fumigación y donde se están dando a conocer resultados sobre el uso del glifosato y todos los agroquímicos que arruinan la vida de quienes los manipulan, de quienes viven en zonas rurales y quienes ingieren los cultivos, me parece que estos movimientos tienen una gran oportunidad para construir una identidad sólida y empezar conseguir y movilizar los recursos para la difusión de la lucha.

Es un momento central, donde hay más focos puestos en estos movimientos que antes, y eso hay que aprovecharlo sin duda. Un movimiento social, cuando nace, nace a la sombra de la estructura en sí, nace de los efectos colaterales que no queremos ver, pero en algún momento se prende la luz sobre esa sombra o esos efectos. En este momento, creo que esa lámpara o ese foco de la opinión pública se está dirigiendo hacia esa problemática y es central generar los recursos y construir identidad coherente y fuerte para poder instalarse como un nuevo movimiento social a fin de que la Soberanía Alimentaria se instale no sólo en la agenda pública, sino también en la agenda política.

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre un movimiento social y un partido político?

La diferencia entre movimiento social y partido político es que este último es parte de la estructura y del andamiaje llamado Estado, en el cual puede tomar decisiones, puede disputar espacios de poder para acceder al mismo y puede generar políticas públicas a través de decisiones políticas.

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En cambio, un movimiento social lo que hace es construir voluntades políticas respecto a una demanda coyuntural y/o estructural para generar que la misma pase de la agenda pública a la agenda política. Buscan que la estructura los escuche y les dé una respuesta. El movimiento social está por fuera de la estructura, pero lucha por que alguna parte de ella les haga eco de esas demandas y les dé una solución. El Movimiento Social del Sur, el Movimiento Social Latinoamericano, per se, cree y defiende su forma de organización porque no hay partidos que a priori los representen, pero sí necesitan que el Estado les dé respuestas.


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    era. }
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    Understanding music sheets is vital for any aspiring
    musician. | Understanding how to read music sheets is crucial for all aspiring musician. |
    Learning the art of reading music sheets is vital for every aspiring musicians.}

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    2. **Clefs
    This indicate which note is meant to the lines as well as,
    spaces. | Clefs indicate which note is meant for each line and the different spaces.
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    {There {are actually|actually are|is} {two|two separate|two distinct} {primary|different|distinct} {clefs|clef|music notes} {used in|used in various|used in the} {music|musical} {notation|notes|notations}.
    | There {are actually|actually are|is} {two|two separate|two distinct} {primary|different|distinct} {clefs|musical notes|clef} {used in|used in various|used
    in the} {notations|music|musical} {of|music}
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